El matrimonio de los acatólicos en el derecho italiano
Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Navarra
IUS CANONICUM, XIV, N.I, 1974, pág. 117-132
Summarium Post brevem introductionem de modo perveniendi ad actualem disciplinam acatholicorum matrimonii in lure italico, designatur triplex via matrimonialis italica: matrimonium canonicum transcriptum ad effectus civiles, matrimonium celebratum ante procuratorem registri civilis et matrimonium celebratum ante acatholicos ministros culti. Hoc ultimum suppositum, compartáis aliis duabus viis, est obiectum studii articuli. Quod matrimonium validum sit pendet ab eo quod nominatio ministri ab auctoritate religiosa approbata fuerit a Ministerio Gubernationis; non vero ab eo quod celebratum fuerit in ambitu cuiusdam religionis admissae. Minister debet esse civis italicus et loqui italum sermone m utcapax sit adimplendi hoc munus. Designatio ministri competit procuratori Registri civilis qui esset competens ad matrimonium civile celebrandum, et est nominalis mentione facta temporis approbationis gubernativae. Capacitas partium regitur a Codice civili et calificatur procuratore Registri. Ministro culti competit tollere acta matrimonii et transmittere ea procuratori registri civilis, ad earum transcriptionem in registro. Transcriptio habet tantum valorem certificativum consensus vinculum originantis. Natura iuridica designationis ministri in licencia stat, non vera in delegatione, praesertim quia Rius praesentia est totaliter voluntaria. Cum deest licencia in momento celebrationis, matrimoniu:n revalidare potest ulteriori licentia; et eius defectus non deberet comportare declarationem nullitatis nuptiarum, quamquam datur sententia contraria huic criterio. Revocatio nominationis ministri ab auctoritate religiosa comportat revocationem approbationis gubernativae. Hoc regimen argumentatur esse contrarium aequalitati religiosae praevistae ab art. 3, 1 Constitutionis, cum tribuat facto religioso quamdam relevantiam in celebratione nuptiarum. Denique designantur perspectivae reformationis instituti matrimonii in Italia.--------------------------------------------------------------- Abstraet After a brief outline of the evolution of the material which regulates the present Italian law on noncatholic marriage, the author indicates the three ways of marriage in Italy: canonical wedding with civil effects, civil wedding befo re an of.ficial of the Registry Office; and a noncatholic religious ceremony. This last possibility of marriage,incontrast with the preceding two, is the topic discussed in the rest of the article. The validity of the marriage depends on whether the appointment of the minister by the religious body has been approved by the Ministry of the Interior, and not merely on the fact of being celebrated by a recognized denomination. To be eligible for nomination the minister ought to be an Italian citizen and be able to speak Italian. The responsibility for his appointment lies with the official of the Registry Oftice who would normally perform the civil ceremony; the appointment is nominal; and the date of the government approval should also be specified. The legal capacity •of the contracting parties is governed by the Civil Code and is determined by the official of the Registry Office. The minister of the religious denomination in question should draw up the Marriage Certificate and forward it to the official of the Registry Office for entry in the records. This document serves merely as a testimony to the consent which gives rise to the marriage bond. The juridical nature of the appointment of the minister is called authorization, not delegation, hmong other reasons because his assistance is purely vol untary. When the authorization is lacking at the time of the ceremony the marriage can be revalidated by a later authorization. The failure to possess this authorization should not nullify the wedding, although one judicial decision has been expressed to the contrary. The abrogation of the ministerial appointment by the religious authorities implies the simultaneous abrogation of government approval. The point has been made that this procedure violates the concept of religious equality as expressed in Article 3, § 1 of the Constitution, bygiving importante to the religious factor in thelaw of marriage. Finally, possible reform of the matrimonial structure in Italy is discussed.
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