J.M. Pastor, D. Maza, I. Zuriguel, A. Garcimartín y J.F. Boudet ""Time resolved particle dynamics in granular convection"". Physica D, 232, 128-135, (2007).
We present an experimental study of the movement of individual particles in a layer of vertically shaken granular material. High-speed imaging
allows us to investigate the motion of beads within one vibration period. This motion consists mainly of vertical jumps, and a global ordered drift.
The analysis of the system movement as a whole reveals that the observed bifurcation in the flight time is not adequately described by the Inelastic
Bouncing Ball Model. Near the bifurcation point, friction plays an important role, and the branches of the bifurcation do not diverge as the
control parameter is increased. By fitting the grains trajectories near the wall it is possible to quantify the effective acceleration acting on them.
A comparison of the mass centre flying time and the flying time determined for the grains near the wall exposes the underlying mechanism that causes the downward flow.