S. Madruga, C. Pérez-García and G. Lebon. “Instabilities in two-liquid layers subject to a horizontal temperature gradient”. Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics. (2004).
Abstract. We study theoretically the stability of two superposed fluid layers heated laterally. The fluids are supposed to be immiscible, the interface undeformable and of infinite horizontal extension. Combined thermocapillary and buoyancy forces give rise to a basic flow when a temperature difference is applied. The calculations are performed for a melt of GaAs under
a layer of molten B2O3, a configuration of considerable technological importance. Four different flow patterns and five temperature configurations are found for the basic state in this system. A linear stability analysis shows that the basic state may be destabilized by oscillatory
motions leading to the so-called hydrothermal waves. Depending on the relative height of
the two layers these hydrothermalwaves propagate parallel or perpendicular to the temperature
gradient. This analysis reveals that these perturbations can alter significantly the liquid flow in the liquid-encapsulated crystal growth techniques.