Structural homogeneity of cardiac tissue is governed by mechanical and humoral factors that regulate cell growth, apoptosis, phenotype, and extracellular matrix turnover. ANGII has endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine properties that influence the behavior of cardiac cells and matrix by AT1 receptor binding. Various paradigms have been suggested, including ANGII-mediated up-regulation of collagen types I and III formation and deposition in cardiac conditions, such as HHD. A growing body of evidence, however, deals with the potential role of aldosterone, either local or systemic, in inducing cardiac fibrosis. Aldosterone might also mediate the profibrotic actions of ANGII. To reduce the risk of heart failure that accompanies HHD, its adverse structural remodeling (eg, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis) must be targeted for pharmacologic intervention. Cardioprotective agents must reverse not only the exaggerated growth of cardiac cells, but also regress existing abnormalities in fibrillar collagen. Available experimental and clinical data suggest that agents interfering with ACE, the AT1 receptor, or the mineralocorticoid receptor may provide such a cardioprotective effect.