During myocardial infarction (MI), a variety of mechanisms contribute to the activation of cell death processes in cardiomyocytes, determining the final MI size, subsequent mortality, and post-MI remodelling. The deleterious mechanisms accompanying the ischaemic and reperfusion phases in MI include deprivation of oxygen, nutrients, and survival factors, accumulation of waste products, generation of oxygen free radicals, calcium overload, neutrophil infiltration of the ischaemic area, depletion of energy stores, and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, all of which contribute to the activation of apoptosis and necrosis in cardiomyocytes. During the last few years, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (7-36)-based therapeutic strategies have been incorporated into the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cytoprotection is among the pleiotropic actions described for GLP-1 in different cell types, including cardiomyocytes. This paper reviews the most relevant experimental and clinical studies that have contributed to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and intracellular pathways involved in the cardioprotection induced by GLP-1, analysing in depth its potential role as a therapeutic target in the ischaemic and reperfused myocardium as well as in other pathologies that are associated with myocardial remodelling and heart failure.