Orbe J, Rodriguez JA, Calvo A, Grau A, Belzunce MS, Martinez-Caro D, et al. Vitamins C and E attenuate plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in a hypercholesterolemic porcine model of angioplasty. Cardiovasc Res 2001 Feb 1;49(2):484-492.
BACKGROUND: The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which modulates fibrinolysis and cell migration, may influence proteolysis and neointimal formation in the arterial wall contributing to restenosis after vascular injury. Antioxidants have been proposed as inhibiting multiple proatherogenic events. We explore the effect of vitamins C and E on PAI-1 expression in an experimental model of angioplasty in hypercholesterolemic pigs.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 44 Yucatan minipigs were divided into three diet groups: a normal-cholesterol (NC), a high-cholesterol (HC), and a high-cholesterol plus vitamins C+E (HCV) group. Balloon injury was induced in the right internal iliac artery 4 weeks after initiation of either dietary regimen, and plasma and tissue samples were taken at different time periods to measure PAI-1 activity and vascular inhibitor expression. The cholesterol-rich diet induced an increased in vascular PAI-1 expression in the intima, media and adventitia which was markedly reduced in the HCV group. After injury, severe structural changes were observed in NC and HC animals associated with increased systemic PAI-1 activity (P<0.001) and local PAI-1 expression being more intense in HC group. Vitamins C and E significantly reduced plasma PAI-1 activity (P=0.018) and attenuated the inhibitor expression as compared with HC.
CONCLUSIONS: This experimental study in a porcine model of hypercholesterolemia demonstrates that vitamins C and E reduce local and systemic PAI-1 induced after angioplasty as well as the hypercholesterolemia-induced vascular PAI-1.