Paramo JA, Perez JL, Serrano M, Rocha E. Types 1 and 2 plasminogen activator inhibitor and tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with sepsis. Thromb Haemost 1990 Aug 13;64(1):3-6.
We have determined the plasma concentrations of types 1 and 2 of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 and PAI-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and endotoxin in 47 patients with bacterial infection (22 patients presented with positive blood cultures). Results were compared with those observed in 30 healthy subjects. There was a significant increase in PAI-1 and TNF-alpha in patients as compared to controls (p less than 0.0001), whereas no differences for PAI-2 were observed. PAI-1 and TNF-alpha were significantly higher in 18 patients with gram-negative bacteremia as compared to all other patients (p less than 0.0001). However, no correlation between the analyzed parameters and either endotoxin or clinical outcome was observed. We conclude that there is an increase of PAI-1 and TNF-alpha in patients with sepsis, which is not related to the endotoxin concentration. Our results suggest that PAI-1, but not PAI-2, is the main plasminogen activator inhibitor in human sepsis.