Rodriguez JL, Sandoval J, Serviddio G, Sastre J, Morante M, Perrelli MG, et al. Id2 leaves the chromatin of the E2F4-p130-controlled c-myc promoter during hepatocyte priming for liver regeneration. Biochem J 2006 Sep 15;398(3):431-437.
The Id (inhibitor of DNA binding or inhibitor of differentiation) helix-loop-helix proteins are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and cancer. The fact that the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration are not completely understood prompted us to study the fate of Id2 in proliferating liver. Id2 increases in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, following the early induction of its gene. Co-immunoprecipitation shows that Id2 forms a complex with E2F4, p130 and mSin3A in quiescent liver and all these components are present at the c-myc promoter as shown using ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation). Activation of c-myc during hepatocyte priming (G0-G1 transition) correlates with the dissociation of Id2 and HDAC (histone deacetylase), albeit p130 remains bound at least until 6 h. Moreover, as the G0-G1 transition progresses, Id2 and HDAC again bind the c-myc promoter concomitantly with the repression of this gene. The time course of c-myc binding to the Id2 promoter, as determined by ChIP assays is compatible with a role of the oncoprotein as a transcriptional inducer of Id2 in liver regeneration. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that Id2 also increases in proliferating hepatocytes after bile duct ligation. In this case, the pattern of Id2 presence in the c-myc promoter parallels that found in regenerating liver. Our results may suggest a control role for Id2 in hepatocyte priming, through a p130 dissociation-independent regulation of c-myc