Villar R, Vicente E, Solano B, Perez-Silanes S, Aldana I, Maddry JA, et al. In vitro and in vivo antimycobacterial activities of ketone and amide derivatives of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008 SEP;62(3):547-554
Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate a novel series of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for efficacy in a mouse model of tuberculosis (TB).
Methods: Ketone and amide derivatives of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo tests including: (i) activity against M. tuberculosis resistant to currently used antitubercular drugs including multidrug-resistant strains (MDR-TB resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin); (ii) activity against non-replicating persistent (NRP) bacteria; (iii) MBC; (iv) maximum tolerated dose, oral bioavailability and in vivo efficacy in mice; and (v) potential for cross-resistance with another bioreduced drug, PA-824.
Results: Ten compounds were tested on single drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. In general, all compounds were active with ratios of MICs against resistant and non-resistant strains of <= 4.00. One compound, 5, was orally active in a murine model of TB, bactericidal, active against NRP bacteria and active on MDR-TB and poly drug-resistant clinical isolates (resistant to 3-5 antitubercular drugs).
Conclusions: Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides represent a new class of orally active antitubercular drugs. They are likely bioreduced to an active metabolite, but the pathway of bacterial activation was different from PA-824, a bioreducible nitroimidazole in clinical trials. Compound 5 was bactericidal and active on NRP organisms indicating that activation occurred in both growing and non-replicating bacteria leading to cell death. The presence of NRP bacteria is believed to be a major factor responsible for the prolonged nature of antitubercular therapy. If the bactericidal activity and activity on non-replicating bacteria in vitro translate to in vivo conditions, quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides may offer a path to shortened therapy.