De-Torres JP, Blanco D, Alcaide AB, Seijo LM, Bastarrika G, Pajares MJ, et al. Smokers with CT detected emphysema and no airway obstruction have decreased plasma levels of EGF, IL-15, IL-8 and IL-1ra. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e60260.
Current or former smokers expressing a well-defined disease characteristic such as emphysema, has a specific plasma cytokine profile. This includes a decrease of cytokines mainly implicated in activation of apoptosis or decrease of immunosurveillance. This information should be taken into account when evaluated patients with tobacco respiratory diseases.