Insuficiencia cardíaca Tratamiento farmacológico Inhibidores de la enzima conversora de la angiotensina
Fecha de publicación:
Ediciones Universidad de Navarra
Coma-Canella I, Castaño S, Nasarre E.Insuficiencia cardíaca. Tratamiento farmacológico actual. Rev Med Univ Navarra. 2005 Jul-Sep;49(3):41-7.
Treatment of heart failure (HF) has changed in recent years, despite the paucity of new approved drugs. Current treatment is directed not only towards improving symptoms, but also to preventing the development from asymptomatic systolic dysfunction to symptomatic heart failure, to preventing cardiac remodelling, renal dysfunction and to reducing mortality. The main families of drugs currently used are: cardiac glycosides, diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), beta-blocking drugs (BB), angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARB) and aldosterone receptor antagonists. The combination isosorbide dinitrate + hydralazine is hardly used due to its side effects and none of the new positive inotropic drugs has been approved in chronic HF, because all of them increase mortality. Levosimendan is a new positive inotropic agent approved for acute HF by an intravenous route, with a favourable effect on prognosis vs placebo and vs dobutamine (which worsens the prognosis). The approved oral drugs can be given at the same time if the patient tolerates them, because their beneficial effect is additive. Mortality in two years in mild to moderate HF is 34% with glycosides + diuretics. It falls to 22% when an ACEI is added, to 14% when a BB is added and to 10% when an aldosterone antagonist is added. ARB can be given instead of an ACEI or be added to the other drugs.