Estevez Y, Quiliano M, Burguete A, Cabanillas B, Zimic M, Málaga E, et al. Trypanocidal properties, structure–activity relationship and computational studies of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives. Exp Parasitol 2011 4;127(4):745-751
Two series of pyrazol and propenone quinoxaline derivatives were tested for parasiticidal activity (against amastigotes of Leishmania peruviana and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi) and for toxicity against proliferative and non-proliferative cells. The pyrazol series was almost inactive against T. cruzi but, 2,6-Dimethyl-3-[5-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl] - quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide inhibited 50% of Leishmania growth at 8.9 µM with no impact against proliferative kidney cells and low toxicity against Thp-1 and murine macrophages. The compounds of the propenone series were moderately active against T. cruzi. Among them, 2 compounds were particularly interesting: (2E)-1-(7-Fluoro-3-methyl-quinoxalin-2-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-propenone, that showed a selective activity against proliferative cells (cancer and parasites), being inactive against normal murine peritoneal macrophages and (2E)-3-(3,4,5-Trimethoxy-phenyl)-1-(3,6,7-trimethyl-quinoxalin-2-yl)-propenone that was only active against Leishmania and inactive against the other tested cells. Furthermore in silico studies were performed for ADME properties and docking studies, both series of compounds respected the Lipinski’s rules and show linear correlation between tripanosomaticidal activities and LogP. Docking studies revealed that compounds of the second series could interact with the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein of Trypanosoma cruzi.