Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: review and update
Keywords: 
Smoking
Macular degeneration
Risk factor
Issue Date: 
2013
Publisher: 
Hindawi
ISSN: 
2090-004X
Citation: 
Velilla S, García-Medina JJ, García-Layana A, Dolz-Marco R, Pons-Vázquez S, Pinazo-Durán MD, et al. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: review and update. J Ophthalmol. 2013;2013:895147.
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health.

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