González J, Pardo F, Cienfuegos JA, Hernández JL, de Villa V, Torramadé J, et al. Plasma levels of leukotriene B4 during hepatic allograft rejection. Transplant Proc. 1992 Feb;24(1):143-4.
At the present time, rejection is the most frequent cause of graft dysfunction in liver
transplantation. Differential diagnosis between this and other possible causes of
dysfunction—preservation injury, vascular, biliary, viral—may well be difficult, as the
clinical and analytical findings are often similar; moreover, no markers specific to
rejection are available, and histological studies are necessary for a definitive diagnosis.
For this reason, markers indicating activity within the immune system need to be
established so as to provide a more specific means of distinguishing rejection from
other causes of graft dysfunction.
The immune response to an allograft is complex, and the intricate mechanisms
regulating it are still not entirely understood. Nevertheless, several specialists have drawn connections among changes in the lymphocyte subpopulations, rises in the interleukin-2 levels, expression of the interleukin-2 receptor, and alteration in the
expression of antigens belonging to class II in the greater complex of
histocompatibility, with rejection of the allograft. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a derivative of the metabolism of arachidonic acid via 5-
lipoxygenase, whose in vitro behaviour is to encourage rejection by favoring leukocyte
aggregation, proliferation of T lymphocytes, interleukin-1 and -2 secretion, and the
development of "natural killer" cell subpopulations. This study examines the role of LTB4 in mediating the immune response to the hepatic allograft in order to assess its
usefulness in early diagnosis of rejection.