Glycemic index Glycemic load Bread Food-frequency questionnaire SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) project
Fuente-Arrillaga C, Martínez-González MA, Zazpe-García I, Vázquez-Ruíz Z, Benito-Corchón S, Bes-Rastrollo M. Glycemic load, glycemic index, bread and incidence of overweight/obesity in a mediterranean cohort: the sun project. BMC Public Health. 2014 Oct 22;14:1091
To evaluate prospectively the relationship between white, or whole grain bread, and glycemic
index, or glycemic load from diet and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort.
We followed-up 9 267 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 5 years. Dietary
habits at baseline were assessed using a semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency
questionnaire. Average yearly weight change was evaluated according to quintiles of baseline
glycemic index, glycemic load, and categories of bread consumption. We also assessed the
association between bread consumption, glycemic index, or glycemic load, and the incidence
White bread and whole-grain bread were not associated with higher weight gain. No
association between glycemic index, glycemic load and weight change was found.
White bread consumption was directly associated with a higher risk of becoming
overweight/obese (adjusted OR (≥2 portions /day) versus (≤1 portion /week): 1.40; 95% CI:
1.08-1.81; p for trend: 0.008). However, no statistically significant association was observed
between whole-grain bread, glycemic index or glycemic load and overweight/obesity.
Consumption of white bread (≥2 portions /day) showed a significant direct association with
the risk of becoming overweight/obese.