Shifts in microbiota species and fermentation products in a dietary model enriched in fat and sucrose
Palabras clave : 
Short chain fatty acids
Erysipelotrichi
High-fat sucrose diet
Pyrosequencing
Gut microbiota
Fecha de publicación: 
2015
Editorial : 
Wageningen Academic Publishers
ISSN: 
1876-2883
Nota de editorial: 
The original publication is available at http://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/abs/10.3920/BM2013.0097
Cita: 
Etxeberria U, Arias N, Boqué N, Macarulla MT, Portillo MP, Milagro FI, et al. Shifts in microbiota species and fermentation products in a dietary model enriched in fat and sucrose. Benef Microbes. 2015 Mar;6(1):97-111
Resumen
The gastrointestinal tract harbours a “superorganism” called the gut microbiota, which is known to play a crucial role in the onset and development of diverse diseases. This internal ecosystem, far from being a static environment, could be willingly manipulated by diet and dietary components. Feeding animals with high-fat sucrose diets entails diet-induced obesity, a model which is usually used in research to mimic the obese phenotype of Western societies. The aim of the present study was to identify gut microbiota dysbiosis and associated metabolic changes produced in 5 male Wistar rats fed a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet for six weeks and to compare it with the basal microbial composition. For this purpose, DNA extracted from faeces at baseline and after the treatment was analysed by amplification of the V4-V6 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetate, propionate and butyrate, were also evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). At the end of the treatment, gut microbiota composition significantly differed at phylum level (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) and class level (Erisypelotrichi, Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Bacilli). Interestingly, Clostridia class showed a significant decrease after the HFS-diet treatment, which correlated with visceral adipose tissue, and is likely mediated by dietary carbohydrates. Of particular interest, Clostridium cluster XIVa species were significantly reduced and changes were identified in the relative abundance of other specific bacterial species (Mitsuokella jalaludinii, Eubacterium ventriosum, Clostridium sp. FCB90-3, Prevotella nanceiensis, Clostridium fusiformis, Clostridium sp. BNL1100 and Eubacterium cylindroides) that, in some cases, showed opposite trends to their relative families. These results highlight the relevance of characterizing gut microbial population differences at species level and contribute to understand the plausible link between the 1 diet and specific gut bacterial species that are able to influence the inflammatory status, intestinal barrier function and obesity development. Keywords: gut microbiota, pyrosequencing, high-fat sucrose diet, short chain fatty acids, Erysipelotrichi

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