Cardiovascular Biomarkers Omics Mediterranean diet Gene-diet interactions Materias Investigacion::Ciencias de la Salud::Medicina preventiva
Fecha de publicación:
Fito M, Melander O, Martinez JA, Toledo E, Carpene C, Corella D. Advances in Integrating Traditional and Omic Biomarkers When Analyzing the Effects of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Cardiovascular Prevention. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016;17:1-20.
Abstract: Intervention with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has provided a high level of evidence
in primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Besides enhancing protection from classical risk
factors, an improvement has also been described in a number of non-classical ones. Benefits have
been reported on biomarkers of oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, adipokine production,
and pro-thrombotic state. Although the benefits of the MedDiet have been attributed to its richness
in antioxidants, the mechanisms by which it exercises its beneficial effects are not well known.
It is thought that the integration of omics including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and
metabolomics, into studies analyzing nutrition and cardiovascular diseases will provide new clues
regarding these mechanisms. However, omics integration is still in its infancy. Currently, some
single-omics analyses have provided valuable data, mostly in the field of genomics. Thus, several
gene-diet interactions in determining both intermediate (plasma lipids, etc.) and final cardiovascular
phenotypes (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.) have been reported. However, few studies have
analyzed changes in gene expression and, moreover very few have focused on epigenomic or
metabolomic biomarkers related to the MedDiet. Nevertheless, these preliminary results can help
to better understand the inter-individual differences in cardiovascular risk and dietary response for
further applications in personalized nutrition.