IL-10 expression defines an immunosuppressive dendritic cell population induced by antitumor therapeutic vaccination
Keywords: 
Dendritic cells
Therapeutic vaccination
IL-10
PD-L1
Immunoregulation
Issue Date: 
1-Jan-2016
Publisher: 
Impact Journals
Note: 
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Citation: 
Llopiz, D. (Diana); Ruiz, M. (Marta); Infante, S. (Stefany); et al. "IL-10 expression defines an immunosuppressive dendritic cell population induced by antitumor therapeutic vaccination". Oncotarget. 8 (2), 2016-01-01, 2659 - 2671
Abstract
Vaccination induces immunostimulatory signals that are often accompanied by regulatory mechanisms such as IL-10, which control T-cell activation and inhibit vaccine-dependent antitumor therapeutic effect. Here we characterized IL- 10-producing cells in different tumor models treated with therapeutic vaccines. Although several cell subsets produced IL-10 irrespective of treatment, an early vaccine-dependent induction of IL-10 was detected in dendritic cells (DC). IL-10 production defined a DC population characterized by a poorly mature phenotype, lower expression of T-cell stimulating molecules and upregulation of PD-L1. These IL-10+ DC showed impaired in vitro T-cell stimulatory capacity, which was rescued by incubation with IL-10R and PD-L1-inhibiting antibodies. In vivo IL-10 blockade during vaccination decreased the proportion of IL-10+ DC and improved their maturation, without modifying PD-L1 expression. Similarly, PD-L1 blockade did not affect IL-10 expression. Interestingly, vaccination combined with simultaneous blockade of IL-10 and PD-L1 induced stronger immune responses, resulting in a higher therapeutic efficacy in tumor-bearing mice. These results show that vaccine-induced immunoregulatory IL-10+ DC impair priming of antitumor immunity, suggesting that therapeutic vaccination protocols may benefit from combined targeting of inhibitory molecules expressed by this DC subset.

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