Dietary diversity and nutritional adequacy among an older Spanish population with Metabolic Syndrome in the PREDIMED-Plus study: a cross-sectional analysis
Keywords: 
Dietary diversity
Nutrient adequacy
Metabolic syndrome
Aging
Premides-plus study
Issue Date: 
2019
Publisher: 
MDPI
ISSN: 
2072-6643
Note: 
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons: Atribution License (cc BY)
Citation: 
Cano-Ibañez, N. (Naomi); Gea, A. (Alfredo); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); et al. "Dietary diversity and nutritional adequacy among an older Spanish population with Metabolic Syndrome in the PREDIMED-Plus study: a cross-sectional analysis". . 11 (5), 2019, 958
Abstract
Dietary guidelines emphasize the importance of a varied diet to provide an adequate nutrient intake. However, an older age is often associated with consumption of monotonous diets that can be nutritionally inadequate, increasing the risk for the development or progression of diet-related chronic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). To assess the association between dietary diversity (DD) and nutrient intake adequacy and to identify demographic variables associated with DD, we cross-sectionally analyzed baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus trial: 6587 Spanish adults aged 55–75 years, with overweight/obesity who also had MetS. An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated using a 143-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient inadequacy was defined as an intake below 2/3 of the dietary reference intake (DRI) forat least four of 17 nutrients proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between DDS and the risk of nutritionally inadequate intakes. In the higher DDS quartile there were more women and less current smokers. Compared with subjects in the highest DDS quartile, those in the lowest DDS quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake: odds ratio (OR) = 28.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.80–39.21). When we estimated food varietyfor each of the food groups, participants in the lowest quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake for the groups of vegetables, OR = 14.03 (95% CI 10.55–18.65), fruits OR = 11.62 (95% CI 6.81–19.81), dairy products OR = 6.54 (95% CI 4.64–9.22) and protein foods OR = 6.60 (95% CI 1.96–22.24). As DDS decreased, the risk of inadequate nutrients intake rose. Given the impact of nutrient intake adequacy on the prevention of non-communicable diseases, health policies should focus on the promotion of a healthy varied diet, specifically promoting the intake of vegetables and fruit among population groups with lower DDS such as men, smokers or widow(er)s. View Full-Text

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