Flores-Flores, M.E. (Myra Evelyn); Gonzalez-Peñas, E. (Elena). "Analysis of mycotoxins in Spanish milk". Journal of Dairy Science. 101 (1), 2018, 113 - 117
We surveyed the presence of 22 mycotoxins in 191 Spanish cow milk samples. Mycotoxins could be carried over from diet into animal milk and have toxic effects on human and animal health. The interaction of different mycotoxins may be additive or synergetic. Therefore, surveillance of mycotoxin co-occurrence in milk is recommended. Aflatoxins M1, B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxins A and B, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol, 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, fusarenon X, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, fumonisins B1, B2, and B3, sterigmatocystin, and zearalenone were analyzed. Samples were treated by liquid-liquid extraction with acidified acetonitrile, followed by an acetonitrile-water phase separation using sodium acetate. The analysis was carried out by HPLC coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. None of the analyzed mycotoxins had a concentration level higher than their detection limit (0.05–10.1 µg/L). The aflatoxin M1 in the samples never exceeded the level established by the European Union.