Presence of 19 mycotoxins in human plasma in a region of Northern Spain
Keywords: 
Human plasma
Human biomonitoring
Mycotoxins
OchratoxinA
OchratoxinB
Sterigmatocistyn
Issue Date: 
2020
Publisher: 
MDPI
ISSN: 
2072-6651
Citation: 
Arce-López, B. (Beatriz); Lizarraga, E. (Elena); Irigoyen, A. (Angel); et al. "Presence of 19 mycotoxins in human plasma in a region of Northern Spain". Toxins. (12), 2020, 750
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate human exposure to19 compounds(mycotoxins and their metabolites) in plasma samples from healthy adults (n = 438, aged 19–68 years) from Navarra, a region of northern Spain. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS, before and after enzymatic hydrolysis for the detection of possible glucuronides and/or sulfates (Phase II metabolites). The most prevalent mycotoxin was ochratoxin A (OTA), with an incidence of 97.3%. Positive samples were in the concentration range of 0.4 ng/mL to 45.7 ng/mL. After enzymatic treatment, OTA levels increased in a percentage of individuals, which may indicate the presence of OTA-conjugates. Regarding ochratoxinB, ithasalso been detected(10% of the samples),and its presence may be related to human metabolism of OTA. Sterigmatocystin was detected with a high incidence (85.8%), but only after enzymatichydrolysis,supporting glucuronidationasa pathway of its metabolism in humans. None of the other studied mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1; T-2 and HT-2 toxins; deoxynivalenol, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol; zearalenone; nivalenol; fusarenon-X; neosolaniol; and diacetoxyscirpenol) were detected in any of the samples,neither before nor after enzymatic treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report carried out in Spain to determine the exposure of the population to mycotoxins and some of their metabolites using plasma, and the obtained results justify the need for human biomonitoring and metabolism studies on mycotoxins.

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