Inoges S, de Cerio AL, Villanueva H, Soria E, Pastor F, Bendandi M. Idiotype vaccines for lymphoma therapy. Expert Rev Vaccines 2011 Jun;10(6):801-809.
Despite having been the first cancer vaccine to provide clear-cut evidence of biological and clinical efficacy as well as of clinical benefit in humans, idiotype vaccines have failed to become the first therapeutic cancer vaccine to be granted regulatory approval. Indeed, idiotypic vaccination is still an experimental therapeutic option for some types of B-cell malignancy over 20 years after its first use in patients with lymphoma. The ultimate reason for this situation lies in the recent failure of three large-scale, independent, randomized trials to achieve their respective main clinical end points. Interestingly, each trial had been designed with intrinsic pitfalls that are likely to have influenced, and perhaps even entirely compromized, all chances each study had to succeed. Therefore, it is difficult to conclude whether any of the different idiotype vaccines employed so far may still represent an ideal candidate for further trials. Meanwhile, other idiotype vaccine formulations are under active investigation.