Alteration of S-nitrosothiol homeostasis and targets for protein S-nitrosation in human hepatocytes
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Wiley-VCH Verlag Berlin
Lopez-Sanchez LM, Corrales FJ, Gonzalez R, Ferrin G, Munoz-Castaneda JR, Ranchal I, et al. Alteration of S-nitrosothiol homeostasis and targets for protein S-nitrosation in human hepatocytes. Proteomics 2008 Nov;8(22):4709-4720.
The liver is one organ clearly influenced by nitric oxide (NO), and acute and chronic exposure to this substance has been associated with distinct patterns of liver disease. Disruption or deregulation of S-nitrosothiol (SNO) signalling leads to impairment of cellular function and disease, and this study was aimed to identify potential targets for protein S-nitrosation during alteration of SNO homeostasis in human hepatocytes. Cells were treated with S-nitroso-L-cysteine (CSNO), an effective physiological nitrosothiol for delivering NO bioactivity to cells. Treatment with CSNO augmented the levels of S-nitrosoproteins detected both by chemiluminescence and the biotin switch method. CSNO treatment also increased S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity that returned SNO content to basal levels. This increased enzymatic activity was related to augmented levels of ADH-5 mRNA, the gene encoding for GSNOR in humans. In addition, the treatment with the SNO also increased cell death. Twenty S-nitrosoproteins were identified in CSNO-treated hepatocytes, including mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, protein disulphide isomerase, Hsp60, GRP75 and Raf kinase inhibitor protein. The identification in the S-nitrosatable proteome of proteins involved in metabolism, maintenance of cellular homeostasis and signalling points to the relevance of protein S-nitrosation to the physiology and pathophysiology of human hepatocytes.

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