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Edelfosine is the prototype molecule of a family of anticancer drugs collectively known as synthetic alkyl-lysophospholipids. This drug holds promise as a selective antitumor agent, and a number of preclinical assays are in progress. In this study, we observe the accumulation of edelfosine in brain tissue after its oral administration in Compritol® and Precirol® lipid nanoparticles (LN). The high accumulation of edelfosine in brain was due to the inhibition of P-glycoprotein by Tween® 80, as verified using a P-glycoprotein drug interaction assay. Moreover, these LN were tested in vitro against the C6 glioma cell line, which was later employed to establish an in vivo xenograft mouse model of glioma. In vitro studies revealed that edelfosine-loaded LN induced an antiproliferative effect in C6 glioma cell line. In addition, in vivo oral administration of drug-loaded LN in NMRI nude mice bearing a C6 glioma xenograft tumor induced a highly significant reduction in tumor growth (p < 0.01) 14 days after the beginning of the treatment. Our results showed that Tween® 80 coated Compritol® and Precirol® LN can effectively inhibit the growth of C6 glioma cells in vitro and suggest that edelfosine-loaded LN represent an attractive option for the enhancement of antitumor activity on brain tumors in vivo.