Aluminium Infant formula Drinking water Daily intake Provisional tolerable weekly intake
Navarro-Blasco, I. (Íñigo); Alvarez, J.I. (José Ignacio). "Aluminium content of spanish infant formula". Food Additives and Contaminants. 20 (5), 2003, 470 - 481
Aluminium toxicity has been relatively well documented in infants with impaired renal
function and premature neonates.
The aims of this study were to analyse the concentration of aluminium in the majority of
infant formulae sold commercially in Spain, to determine the influence of aluminium
content in the tap water in reconstituted powder formulae and to estimate the theoretical
toxic aluminium intake in comparison with the PTWI, and lastly, to discuss the possible
interactions of certain essential trace elements added to formulation with aluminium
according to type or main protein based infant formula.
A total of 82 different infant formulae from 9 different manufacturers were studied.
Sample digestion was simulated in a closed acid-decomposition microwave system.
Aluminium concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with
In general, the infant formulae studied provide an aluminium level higher than that found
in human milk, especially in the case of soya, preterm or hydrolysed casein-based
Standard formulae provide lower aluminium intakes amounting to about 4 % PTWI.
Specialised and preterm formulae result in moderate intake (11 – 12 % and 8 – 10 %
PTWI, respectively). Soya formulae contribute the highest intake (15 % PTWI).
Aluminium exposure from drinking water used for powder formula reconstitution is not
considered a clear potential risk.
In accordance with the present state of knowledge about aluminium toxicity, it seems
prudent to call for continued efforts to standardise routine quality control and reduce
aluminium levels in infant formula as well as to keep the aluminium concentration under
300 g l-1 for all infant formulae, most specifically those formulae for premature and low