Chromium content in different kinds of spanish infant formuale and estimation of dietary intake by infants fed on reconstituted powder formulae
Other Titles: 
Chromium content of spanish infant formulae
Infant formula
Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS)
Drinking water
Daily intake
Materias Investigacion::Ciencias de la Salud::Química médica
Issue Date: 
Sola-Larrañaga, C. (Cristina); Navarro-Blasco, I. (Íñigo). "Chromium content in different kinds of spanish infant formuale and estimation of dietary intake by infants fed on reconstituted powder formulae". Food Additives and Contaminants. 23 (11), 2006, 1157 - 1168
The essentiality of chromium in humans is well documented. Trivalent chromium, main chemistry form found in foods, is essential for maintaining normal glucose metabolism. Because of analytical difficulties, several literature reports of chromium content of foods, especially for the lower levels, show large variability and they should be interpreted with caution for a valid interpretation of reliable results. A Zeeman background correction transversely-heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the chromium content of 104 different infant formulae (cow’s milk and soy protein based) marked in Spain following an acid attack sample preparation procedure in a closed, pressurized and microwave digestion unit. Mean and range chromium values, regarding types and main protein-based infant formulae are presented. Additionally, the influence of the type of container used, the impact of industrial process from different manufacturers and the physical state (powder and liquid formulae) on chromium levels is also discussed. In general, the infant formulae contain a higher chromium concentration than that found in human milk (reference range: 0.20 – 8.18 g l-1), particularly in case of hypoallergenic (18.16 ± 7.89 g l-1), lactose-free (11.37 ± 3.07 g l-1), preterm (11.48 ± 3.15 g l-1) and soya (10.43 ± 4.05 g l-1) formulae. The maximum theoretical estimated intake of infant fed on studied formulae was lower than the upper limit safety for trivalent chromium of 1 mg kg-1 (14 g Kg-1 b.w. day-1) recommended by the experts of Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN ULS, 2004), amounting to about 10 %, 15-18 % and 26 % for standard (adapted and follow-up) and toddler; soya, lactose-free and preterm; and hypoallergenic formulae, respectively. Therefore, manufacturers are called for continued effort to routinely monitor chromium levels, mainly for specialised and preterm formulae, and at the same time, might consider the inclusion of labelling value for chromium at least in these complex formulations.

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