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Rochin-Wong, S.; Rosas-Durazo, A.; Zavala-Rivera, P.; et al. "Drug release properties of diflunisal from layer-by-layer self-assembled kappa-carrageenan/chitosan nanocapsules: effect of deposited layers". Polymers . 10 (7), 2018, 760
Engineering of multifunctional drug nanocarriers combining stability and good release properties remains a great challenge. In this work, natural polymers kappa-carrageenan (kappa-CAR) and chitosan (CS) were deposited onto olive oil nanoemulsion droplets (NE) via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly to study the release mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory diflunisal (DF) as a lipophilic drug model. The nano-systems were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential (zeta-potential) measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the NE-coating with polymer layers. In addition, kinetic release studies of DF were developed by the dialysis diffusion bag technique. Mathematical models were applied to investigate the release mechanisms. The results showed that stable and suitably sized nanocapsules (similar to 300 nm) were formed. Also, the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolytes by charge reversal was evidenced. More interestingly, the drug release mechanism varied depending on the number of layers deposited. The nanosized systems containing up to two layers showed anomalous transport and first order kinetics. Formulations with three and four layers exhibited Case II transport releasing diflunisal with zero order kinetics.