Combination of polymeric superplasticizers, water repellents and pozzolanic agents to improve air lime-based grouts for historic masonry repair
Keywords: 
Polymeric superplasticizers
Zeta potential
Adsorption isotherms
Steric hindrance
Grouts
Injectability
Hydrorepellency
Freeze-thaw cycles
Issue Date: 
11-Apr-2020
Publisher: 
MDPI AG
ISSN: 
2073-4360
Citation: 
Gonzalez-Sanchez JF, Taşcı B, Fernandez JM, Navarro-Blasco I, Alvarez JI. Combination of polymeric superplasticizers, water repellents and pozzolanic agents to improve air lime-based grouts for historic masonry repair. Polymers, 2020, 12(4), 887
Abstract
This paper presents the experimental procedure to develop air lime-based injection grouts including polymeric superplasticizers, a water repellent agent and pozzolanic agents as additives. Research focuses on the development of grouts to improve various characteristics simultaneously combining different additions and admixtures. Aiming to improve the injectability of the grouts, in this study different polymeric superplasticizers were added, namely polycarboxylated-ether derivative (PCE), polynaphthalene sulfonate (PNS) and condensate of melamine-formaldehyde sulfonate (SMFC). Sodium oleate was also used as a water repellent agent to reduce the water absorption. The enhancement of the strength and setting time was intended by using microsilica and metakaolin as pozzolanic mineral additions. Compatibility between the different admixtures and action mechanism of the different polymers were studied by means of zeta potential and adsorption isotherms measurements. Diverse grout mixtures were produced and investigated assessing their injectability, fluidity, stability, compressive strength, hydrophobicity and durability. This research leads to several suitable mixtures produced by using more than one component to enhance efficiency and to provide better performance of grouts. According to the results, the grout composed of air lime, metakaolin, sodium oleate and PCE was found the most effective composition improving the mechanical strength, injectability and hydrophobicity.

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