Biochar-Ca and Biochar-Al/-Fe-mediated phosphate exchange capacity are main drivers of the different biochar effects on plants in acidic and alkaline soils
Keywords: 
Biochar
Liming
Phosphate blockage
Acidic and alkaline soils
Issue Date: 
2020
ISSN: 
0002-1962
Note: 
CC BY
Citation: 
Baigorri, R. (Roberto); San-Francisco, S. (Sara); Urrutia-Sagardia, O. (Óscar); et al. "Biochar-Ca and Biochar-Al/-Fe-mediated phosphate exchange capacity are main drivers of the different biochar effects on plants in acidic and alkaline soils". Agronomy Journal. 10 (7), 2020, 968
Abstract
Because of the low consistency of the results obtained in the field, the use of biochar as a soil amendment is controversial. Thus, in general, in acidic soils, results are positive, while in alkaline soils, they are non-significant or even negative. The results regarding biochar action in acidic soils have been related to a lime-like effect due to its alkaline pH and the high doses normally used. However, the causes of biochar effects in alkaline soils remain unknown. Our objective was to explore the chemical mechanism of biochar interaction in acidic and alkaline soils. We used well-characterized biochar as a component of two complex N and PK granulated fertilizers at two different doses (1% and 5%). These fertilizers were applied to wheat cultivated in pots containing an alkaline soil and grown for 60 days. No effect was shown for the N-biochar fertilizer application. However, the PK-biochar fertilizer application caused a decrease in crop yield. In addition, the adsorption isotherms of Al, Fe, Mo, Mn, and Phosphate (Pi) in biochar were also studied. The results showed that Fe and Al were rapidly adsorbed in biochar, while Pi was only adsorbed on the Fe-, Al-biochar complex. Desorption experiments showed that P and Fe/Al were not desorbed from the P-Fe/Al-biochar complex by water or the Olsen reagent, while partial desorption was observed when HCl 0.1 M was used.

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