Adherence to treatment and related factors among patients with chronic conditions in primary care: a cross-sectional study
Keywords: 
Materias Investigacion::Ciencias de la Salud::Medicina preventiva
Treatment adherence
Medication adherence
Patient adherence
Patient education
Chronic conditions
Multidimensional factors
WHO multidimensional framework
Primary care
Issue Date: 
2019
Publisher: 
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Publisher Version: 
ISSN: 
1471-2296
Note: 
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Citation: 
Fernández-Lázaro, C.I. (César I.); García-González, J.M. (Juan M.); Adams, D.P. (David P.); et al. "Adherence to treatment and related factors among patients with chronic conditions in primary care: a cross-sectional study". BMC Family Practice. 20 (132), 2019, 1 - 12
Abstract
Background: Adherence to treatment, a public health issue, is of particular importance in chronic disease therapies. Primary care practices offer ideal venues for the effective care and management of these conditions. The aim of this study is to assess adherence to treatment and related-factors among patients with chronic conditions in primary care settings. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 299 adult patients with ≥1 chronic condition(s) and prescribed medication in primary healthcare centers of Spain. The Morisky-Green-Levine questionnaire was used to assess medication adherence via face-to-face interviews. Crude and adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with adherence using the Multidimensional Model proposed by the World Health Organization — social and economic, healthcare team and system-related, condition-related, therapy-related, and patient-related factors. Results: The proportion of adherent patients to treatment was 55.5%. Older age (adjusted odds ratio 1.31 per 10- year increment, 95% CI 1.01–1.70), lower number of pharmacies used for medication refills (0.65, 95% CI 0.47– 0.90), having received complete treatment information (3.89, 95% CI 2.09–7.21), having adequate knowledge about medication regimen (4.17, 95% CI 2.23–7.80), and self-perception of a good quality of life (2.17, 95% CI 1.18–4.02) were independent factors associated with adherence. Conclusions: Adherence to treatment for chronic conditions remained low in primary care. Optimal achievement of appropriate levels of adherence through tailored multifaceted interventions will require attention to the multidimensional factors found in this study, particularly those related to patients’ education and their information needs.

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