Pistachio consumption modulates DNA oxidation and genes related to telomere maintenance: a crossover randomized clinical trial
Keywords: 
Materias Investigacion::Ciencias de la Salud::Nutrición y dietética
Issue Date: 
2019
Publisher: 
Oxford University Press (OUP)
ISSN: 
0002-9165
Note: 
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation: 
Canudas, S. (S.); Hernandez-Alonso, P. (Pablo); Galié, S. (Serena); et al. "Pistachio consumption modulates DNA oxidation and genes related to telomere maintenance: a crossover randomized clinical trial". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 109, 2019, 1738 - 1745
Abstract
Background: Telomere attrition may play an important role in the pathogenesis and severity of type 2 diabetes (T2D), increasing the probability of β cell senescence and leading to reduced cell mass and decreased insulin secretion. Nutrition and lifestyle are known factors modulating the aging process and insulin resistance/secretion, determining the risk of T2D. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pistachio intake on telomere length and other cellular aging-related parameters of glucose and insulin metabolism. Methods: Forty-nine prediabetic subjects were included in a randomized crossover clinical trial. Subjects consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50 E% [energy percentage] carbohydrates and 33 E% fat, including 57 g pistachios/d) and an isocaloric control diet (CD, 55 E% carbohydrates and 30 E% fat) for 4 mo each, separated by a 2-wk washout period. DNA oxidation was evaluated by DNA damage (via 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine). Leucocyte telomere length and gene expression related to either oxidation, telomere maintenance or glucose, and insulin metabolism were analyzed by multiplexed quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction after the dietary intervention. Results: Compared with the CD, the PD reduced oxidative damage to DNA (mean: -3.5%; 95% CI: -8.07%, 1.05%; P = 0.009). Gene expression of 2 telomere-related genes (TERT and WRAP53) was significantly upregulated (164% and 53%) after the PD compared with the CD (P = 0.043 and P = 0.001, respectively). Interestingly, changes in TERT expression were negatively correlated to changes in fasting plasma glucose concentrations and in the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Conclusions: Chronic pistachio consumption reduces oxidative damage to DNA and increases the gene expression of some telomere-associated genes. Lessening oxidative damage to DNA and telomerase expression through diet may represent an intriguing way to promote healthspan in humans, reversing certain deleterious metabolic consequences of prediabetes.

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