Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins in Plasma of Patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease
Ochratoxin A
Human exposure
Parkinson's disease
Alzheimer's disease
Neurodegenerative disease
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Arce-Lopez, B.; Alvarez-Erviti, L.; De Santis, B.; et al. "Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins in Plasma of Patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease". Toxins. 13 (7), 2021, 477
Exposure to environmental contaminants might play an important role in neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis, such as Parkinson ' s disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). For the first time in Spain, the plasmatic levels of 19 mycotoxins from patients diagnosed with a neurodegenerative disease (44 PD and 24 AD) and from their healthy companions (25) from La Rioja region were analyzed. The studied mycotoxins were aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1, T-2 and HT-2, ochratoxins A (OTA) and B (OTB), zearalenone, sterigmatocystin (STER), nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol, neosolaniol, diacetoxyscirpenol and fusarenon-X. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS before and after treatment with beta-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase in order to detect potential metabolites. Only OTA, OTB and STER were detected in the samples. OTA was present before (77% of the samples) and after (89%) the enzymatic treatment, while OTB was only detectable before (13%). Statistically significant differences in OTA between healthy companions and patients were observed but the observed differences might seem more related to gender (OTA levels higher in men, p-value = 0.0014) than the disease itself. STER appeared only after enzymatic treatment (88%). Statistical analysis on STER, showed distributions always different between healthy controls and patients (patients' group > controls, p-value < 0.0001). Surprisingly, STER levels weakly correlated positively with age in women (rho = 0.3384), while OTA correlation showed a decrease of levels with age especially in the men with PD (rho = -0.4643).

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