Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cholangiocarcinoma: the missing Link
Keywords: 
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)
Cholangiocytes
Hepatocytes
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)
Issue Date: 
2019
Publisher: 
MDPI AG
ISSN: 
2073-4409
Citation: 
Chen, C. (Chaobo); Nelson, L.J. (Leonard J.); Avila, M.A. (Matías Antonio); et al. "Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cholangiocarcinoma: the missing Link". Cells. 8 (10), 2019,
Abstract
In recent years, the incidence of both liver and biliary tract cancer has increased. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are the two most common types of hepatic malignancies. Whereas HCC is the fifth most common malignant tumor in Western countries, the prevalence of CCA has taken an alarming increase from 0.3 to 2.1 cases per 100,000 people. The lack of specific biomarkers makes diagnosis very difficult in the early stages of this fatal cancer. Thus, the prognosis of CCA is dismal and surgery is the only effective treatment, whilst recurrence after resection is common. Even though chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival in patients with CCA, the 5-year survival rate is still very low—a significant global problem in clinical diagnosis and therapy. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays an important role in signal transduction by converting extracellular stimuli into a wide range of cellular responses including inflammatory response, stress response, differentiation, survival, and tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of the MAPK cascade involves key signaling components and phosphorylation events that play an important role in tumorigenesis. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiological role of MAPK, current therapeutic options, and the current situation of MAPK-targeted therapies in CCA.

Files in This Item:
Thumbnail
File
cells-08-01172-v2.pdf
Description
Size
2.14 MB
Format
Adobe PDF


Items in Dadun are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.