Crowdsourcing as a tool for urban emergency management: lessons from the literature and typology
Keywords: 
Crowdsourcing
Emergency management
Quality control in crowdsourcing
Systematic literature review
Task design
Urban planning
Issue Date: 
2019
Publisher: 
MDPI AG
ISSN: 
1424-8220
Note: 
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation: 
Chaves, R. (Ramon); Schneider, D. (Daniel); Correia, A. (António); et al. "Crowdsourcing as a tool for urban emergency management: lessons from the literature and typology". Sensors. 19 (23), 2019, 1 - 29
Abstract
Recently, citizen involvement has been increasingly used in urban disaster prevention and management, taking advantage of new ubiquitous and collaborative technologies. This scenario has created a unique opportunity to leverage the work of crowds of volunteers. As a result, crowdsourcing approaches for disaster prevention and management have been proposed and evaluated. However, the articulation of citizens, tasks, and outcomes as a continuous flow of knowledge generation reveals a complex ecosystem that requires coordination efforts to manage interdependencies in crowd work. To tackle this challenging problem, this paper extends to the context of urban emergency management the results of a previous study that investigates how crowd work is managed in crowdsourcing platforms applied to urban planning. The goal is to understand how crowdsourcing techniques and quality control dimensions used in urban planning could be used to support urban emergency management, especially in the context of mining-related dam outages. Through a systematic literature review, our study makes a comparison between crowdsourcing tools designed for urban planning and urban emergency management and proposes a five-dimension typology of quality in crowdsourcing, which can be leveraged for optimizing urban planning and emergency management processes.

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