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González-Becerra, K. (K.); Ramos-López, O. (Omar); Barrón-Cabrera, E. (E.); et al. "Fatty acids, epigenetic mechanisms and chronic diseases: a systematic review". Lipids in Health and Disease. 18 (178), 2019, 5469
Background: Chronic illnesses like obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases, are worldwide major
causes of morbidity and mortality. These pathological conditions involve interactions between environmental,
genetic, and epigenetic factors. Recent advances in nutriepigenomics are contributing to clarify the role of some
nutritional factors, including dietary fatty acids in gene expression regulation. This systematic review assesses
currently available information concerning the role of the different fatty acids on epigenetic mechanisms that affect
the development of chronic diseases or induce protective effects on metabolic alterations.
Methods: A targeted search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline databases using the keywords “fatty acids and
epigenetic”. The data were analyzed according to the PRISMA-P guidelines.
Results: Consumption fatty acids like n-3 PUFA: EPA and DHA, and MUFA: oleic and palmitoleic acid was associated
with an improvement of metabolic alterations. On the other hand, fatty acids that have been associated with the
presence or development of obesity, T2D, pro-inflammatory profile, atherosclerosis and IR were n-6 PUFA, saturated
fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and trans fatty acids (elaidic), have been also linked with epigenetic changes.
Conclusions: Fatty acids can regulate gene expression by modifying epigenetic mechanisms and consequently
result in positive or negative impacts on metabolic outcomes.