Fatty acids, epigenetic mechanisms and chronic diseases: a systematic review
Keywords: 
DNA methylation
Obesity
Epigenetic
N-3 fatty acids
Butyrate
Insulin resistance
Metabolic alterations
Issue Date: 
2019
Publisher: 
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
ISSN: 
1476-511X
Note: 
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Citation: 
González-Becerra, K. (K.); Ramos-López, O. (Omar); Barrón-Cabrera, E. (E.); et al. "Fatty acids, epigenetic mechanisms and chronic diseases: a systematic review". Lipids in Health and Disease. 18 (178), 2019, 5469
Abstract
Background: Chronic illnesses like obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases, are worldwide major causes of morbidity and mortality. These pathological conditions involve interactions between environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Recent advances in nutriepigenomics are contributing to clarify the role of some nutritional factors, including dietary fatty acids in gene expression regulation. This systematic review assesses currently available information concerning the role of the different fatty acids on epigenetic mechanisms that affect the development of chronic diseases or induce protective effects on metabolic alterations. Methods: A targeted search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline databases using the keywords “fatty acids and epigenetic”. The data were analyzed according to the PRISMA-P guidelines. Results: Consumption fatty acids like n-3 PUFA: EPA and DHA, and MUFA: oleic and palmitoleic acid was associated with an improvement of metabolic alterations. On the other hand, fatty acids that have been associated with the presence or development of obesity, T2D, pro-inflammatory profile, atherosclerosis and IR were n-6 PUFA, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and trans fatty acids (elaidic), have been also linked with epigenetic changes. Conclusions: Fatty acids can regulate gene expression by modifying epigenetic mechanisms and consequently result in positive or negative impacts on metabolic outcomes.

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