Topical ectoine: a promising molecule in the upper airways inflammation—a systematic review
Keywords: 
Molecule
Topical therapies
Pharmacologic agents
Allergic Rhinitis (AR)
Rhinosinusitis (ARS)
Issue Date: 
2019
Publisher: 
Hindawi Limited
ISSN: 
2090-2727
Note: 
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation: 
Casale-Falcone, M. (Manuele); Moffa, A. (Antonio); Carbone, S. (Samanta); et al. "Topical ectoine: a promising molecule in the upper airways inflammation—a systematic review". BioMed Research International. 2019 (7150942), 2019, 7150942
Abstract
To date, topical therapies guarantee a better delivery of high concentrations of pharmacologic agents to the mucosa of the upper airways (UA). Recently, topical administration of ectoine has just been recognized as adjuvant treatment in the Allergic Rhinitis (AR) and Rhinosinusitis (ARS). The aim of this work is to review the published literature regarding all the potential therapeutic effects of ectoine in the acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of UA. Pertinent studies published without temporal limitation were selected searching on MEDLINE the following terms: “ectoine” and “nasal spray,” “oral spray,” “upper respiratory tract infections,” “rhinosinusitis,” “rhinitis,” “rhinoconjunctivitis,” “pharyngitis,” and “laryngitis.” At the end of our selection process, six relevant publications were included: two studies about the effect of ectoine on AR, one study about ARS, one study about rhinitis sicca anterior, and two studies about acute pharyngitis and/or laryngitis. Due to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory properties, topical administration of ectoine could play a potential additional role in treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of UA, in particular in the management of sinonasal conditions improving symptoms and endoscopic findings. However, these results should be viewed cautiously as they are based on a limited number of studies; some of them were probably underpowered because of their small patient samples.

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