Multi-omic approaches to breast cancer metabolic phenotyping: applications in diagnosis, prognosis, and the development of novel treatments
Keywords: 
Metabolism
Breast cancer
Multi-omics
Biomarkers
Early diagnosis
Subtyping
Prognosis
Treatment
Issue Date: 
2021
ISSN: 
2072-6694
Note: 
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Citation: 
Gómez-Cebrián, N.; Domingo-Ortí, I.; Poveda, J. L.; et al. "Multi-omic approaches to breast cancer metabolic phenotyping: applications in diagnosis, prognosis, and the development of novel treatments". Cancers. 13 (18), 2021, 4544
Abstract
Simple Summary Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous tumor type and has become the leading cause of cancer worldwide, with 685,000 deaths forecast in 2020. The clinical management of BC patients remains challenging, and there exists an urgent need for improved diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies. Multi-omics platforms represent a promising tool for discovering novel biomarkers and identifying new therapeutic targets. In addition, the ongoing development of multi-omics approaches may foster the identification of more robust and accurate algorithms for data analysis. This review aims to summarize the results of recent multi-omics-based studies focused on the characterization of the metabolic phenotype of BC. Breast cancer (BC) is characterized by high disease heterogeneity and represents the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Complex and subtype-specific gene expression alterations participate in disease development and progression, with BC cells known to rewire their cellular metabolism to survive, proliferate, and invade. Hence, as an emerging cancer hallmark, metabolic reprogramming holds great promise for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Multi-omics approaches (the combined analysis of various types of omics data) offer opportunities to advance our understanding of the molecular changes underlying metabolic rewiring in complex diseases such as BC. Recent studies focusing on the combined analysis of genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and/or metabolomics in different BC subtypes have provided novel insights into the specificities of metabolic rewiring and the vulnerabilities that may guide therapeutic development and improve patient outcomes. This review summarizes the findings of multi-omics studies focused on the characterization of the specific metabolic phenotypes of BC and discusses how they may improve clinical BC diagnosis, subtyping, and treatment.

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