Non-price competitiveness factors: simple measurement and an application to the five largest euro area countries
Keywords: 
Euro area
Export shares
Non-price competitiveness
Structural reforms
Trade costs
Issue Date: 
2021
Publisher: 
Wiley
ISSN: 
467-9701
Note: 
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License
Citation: 
Xifré, R. (Ramón). "Non-price competitiveness factors: simple measurement and an application to the five largest euro area countries". The World Economy. (44), 2021, 3091 - 3110
Abstract
This paper obtains a versatile measure of non- price com-petitiveness factors (NPCF) based on a simple international trade model. Trade frictions are reinterpreted as the NPCF conditions (inferior product quality, suboptimal geographi-cal and industry specialisation of exports and any other limitations of the production and exporting channels) that inhibit trade. The set- up is applied to the five largest euro area economies for the period 2000– 2018. Over this period, NPCF have improved significantly in the Netherlands and Spain, mildly in Italy and Germany and mildly worsened in France. In all countries, the improvement in NPCF has been more intense and sustained in the first half of the period and more unstable in the second half. The set- up is also applied at the product level, considering four types of products de-pending on the stage of processing, rendering results which are similar across product types and aligned with those for the whole economy. The results suggest that the conven-tional North– South divide in the euro area might not be en-tirely applicable regarding NPCF
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