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Moffa, A. (Antonio); Costantino, A. (Andrea); Rinaldi, V. (V.); et al. "Nasal delivery devices: A comparative study on cadaver model". BioMed Research International. 2019, 2019, 4602651
Nasal nebulization is a more effective method of delivering topical medication than nasal spray. The purpose of this study was to assess the deposition patterns of nebulization in delivering topical agents to the nasal cavities in the human cadaveric model using a color-based method. We have compared these following nasal devices: single-dose vial irrigation, syringe-irrigation, common nasal spray, Spray-sol, MAD nasal, and Rinowash nasal douche. Endoscopic images were recorded at six anatomical regions prior to and following each nasal device application and four reviewers evaluated the amount of surface area staining. At the nasal vestibule, the blue dye distribution achieved with Spray-sol was more extensive than nasal sprays. At inferior turbinate and nasal cavity floor, single dose vial, syringe, MAD nasal, Spray-sol, and Rinowash demonstrated a greater extent of dye distribution than nasal spray. At the middle turbinate, the average score of both Spray-sol and MAD nasal was significantly higher than other nasal investigated devices. At the nasopharynx, Spray-sol nebulization covers a surface significantly greater than other devices. Compared to traditional sprays, Spray-sol and MAD nasal provided a more effective method of delivering topical agents to the deeper and higher portions of the nasal cavities.