Lysine pathway metabolites and the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the PREDIMED study: results from two case-cohort studies
Cardiovascular disease
Type 2 diabetes
Dietary intervention
Issue Date: 
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Razquin, C. (Cristina); Ruiz-Canela, M. (Miguel); Clish, C.B. (Clary B.); et al. "Lysine pathway metabolites and the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the PREDIMED study: results from two case-cohort studies". Cardiovascular Diabetology. 18 (151), 2019,
Background: The pandemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires the identifcation of new predictor biomarkers. Biomarkers potentially modifable with lifestyle changes deserve a special interest. Our aims were to analyze: (a) The associations of lysine, 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) or pipecolic acid with the risk of T2D or CVD in the PREDIMED trial; (b) the efect of the dietary intervention on 1-year changes in these metabolites, and (c) whether the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions can modify the efects of these metabolites on CVD or T2D risk. Methods: Two unstratifed case-cohort studies nested within the PREDIMED trial were used. For CVD analyses, we selected 696 non-cases and 221 incident CVD cases; for T2D, we included 610 non-cases and 243 type 2 diabetes incident cases. Metabolites were quantifed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Results: In weighted Cox regression models, we found that baseline lysine (HR+1 SD increase=1.26; 95% CI 1.06–1.51) and 2-AAA (HR+1 SD increase=1.28; 95% CI 1.05–1.55) were both associated with a higher risk of T2D, but not with CVD. A signifcant interaction (p=0.032) between baseline lysine and T2D on the risk of CVD was observed: subjects with prevalent T2D and high levels of lysine exhibited the highest risk of CVD. The intervention with MedDiet did not have a signifcant efect on 1-year changes of the metabolites. Conclusions: Our results provide an independent prospective replication of the association of 2-AAA with future risk of T2D. We show an association of lysine with subsequent CVD risk, which is apparently diabetes-dependent. No evidence of efects of MedDiet intervention on lysine, 2-AAA or pipecolic acid changes was found.

Files in This Item:
934.69 kB
Adobe PDF

Statistics and impact

Items in Dadun are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.