Ultrasound and clinical preoperative characteristics for discrimination between ovarian metastatic colorectal cancer and primary ovarian cancer: A case-control study
Keywords: 
Ultrasound
Ovary
Neoplasm
Colon
Metastasic
Model
Risk prediction
Cancer
Issue Date: 
2019
Publisher: 
MDPI AG
ISSN: 
2075-4418
Note: 
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Citation: 
Stukan, M. (Maciej); Alcazar, J.L. (Juan Luis); Gebicki, J. (Jacek); et al. "Ultrasound and clinical preoperative characteristics for discrimination between ovarian metastatic colorectal cancer and primary ovarian cancer: A case-control study". Diagnostics. 9 (4), 2019, 210
Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and sonographic features of ovarian metastases originating from colorectal cancer (mCRC), and to discriminate mCRC from primary ovarian cancer (OC). We conducted a multi-institutional, retrospective study of consecutive patients with ovarian mCRC who had undergone ultrasound examination using the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) terminology, with the addition of evaluating signs of necrosis and abdominal staging. A control group included patients with primary OC. Clinical and ultrasound data, subjective assessment (SA), and an assessment of different neoplasias in the adnexa (ADNEX) model were evaluated. Fisher’s exact and Student’s t-tests, the area under the receiver–operating characteristic curve (AUC), and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to conduct statistical analyses. In total, 162 patients (81 with OC and 81 with ovarian mCRC) were included. None of the patients with OC had undergone chemotherapy for CRC in the past, compared with 40% of patients with ovarian mCRC (p < 0.001). The ovarian mCRC tumors were significantly larger, a necrosis sign was more frequently present, and tumors had an irregular wall or were fixed less frequently; ascites, omental cake, and carcinomatosis were less common in mCRC than in primary OC. In a subgroup of patients with ovarian mCRC who had not undergone treatment for CRC in anamnesis, tumors were larger, and had fewer papillations and more locules compared with primary OC. The highest AUC for the discrimination of ovarian mCRC from primary OC was for CART (0.768), followed by SA (0.735) and ADNEX calculated with CA-125 (0.680). Ovarian mCRC and primary OC can be distinguished based on patient anamnesis, ultrasound pattern recognition, a proposed decision tree model, and an ADNEX model with CA-125 levels.

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