Therapeutic strategies to enhance tumor antigenicity: making the tumor detectable by the immune system
Keywords: 
Neoantigens
Tumor immunity
Cancer immunotherapy
Issue Date: 
2022
ISSN: 
2227-9059
Note: 
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Citation: 
Meraviglia-Crivelli, D.; Zheleva, A. (Angelina); Barainka-Gorostizaga, M. (Martin); et al. "Therapeutic strategies to enhance tumor antigenicity: making the tumor detectable by the immune system". Biomedicines. 10 (8), 2022, 1842
Abstract
Cancer immunotherapy has revolutionized the oncology field, but many patients still do not respond to current immunotherapy approaches. One of the main challenges in broadening the range of responses to this type of treatment is the limited source of tumor neoantigens. T cells constitute a main line of defense against cancer, and the decisive step to trigger their activation is mediated by antigen recognition. Antigens allow the immune system to differentiate between self and foreign, which constitutes a critical step in recognition of cancer cells and the consequent development or control of the malignancy. One of the keystones to achieving a successful antitumor response is the presence of potent tumor antigens, known as neoantigens. However, tumors develop strategies to evade the immune system and resist current immunotherapies, and many tumors present a low tumor mutation burden limiting the presence of tumor antigenicity. Therefore, new approaches must be taken into consideration to overcome these shortcomings. The possibility of making tumors more antigenic represents a promising front to further improve the success of immunotherapy in cancer. Throughout this review, we explored different state-of-the-art tools to induce the presentation of new tumor antigens by intervening at protein, mRNA or genomic levels in malignant cells.

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