Associations between overall, healthful, and unhealthful low-fat dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN project
Breast cancer
Low-fat diet
Dietary patterns
Prospective cohort study
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Aguilera-Buenosvinos, I. (Inmaculada); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Zazpe, I. (Itziar); et al. "Associations between overall, healthful, and unhealthful low-fat dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN project". Nutrition. 109, 2023, 111967
Objectives: Dietary patterns may have a greater influence on human health than individual foods or nutrients, and they are also of substantial interest in the field of breast cancer prevention. Beyond the adequate balance of macronutrients, evidence indicates that the quality of macronutrient sources may play an important role in health outcomes. We sought to examine the relationship between healthful and unhealthful low-fat dietary patterns in relation to breast cancer. Methods: We used observational data from a Mediterranean cohort study (the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project). We prospectively followed 10 930 middle-aged women initially free of breast cancer during a median follow-up of 12.1 y. We calculated an overall, an unhealthful, and a healthful low-fat diet score, based on a previously validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire and grouped participants into ter- tiles. Incident breast cancer—overall and stratified by menopausal status—was the primary outcome. It was self-reported by participants and confirmed based on medical reports or consultation of the National Death Index. We used multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: During 123 297 person-years of follow-up, 150 cases of incident breast cancer were confirmed. No signifi- cant associations were observed for overall or premenopausal breast cancer. For postmenopausal women, we observed a significant association for moderate adherence to the unhealthful low-fat dietary score and postmeno- pausal breast cancer (comparing tertile 2 to tertile 1; hazard ratio = 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.15 4.13). Conclusions: In conclusion, no clear associations were observed, although more research is needed to address the association between an unhealthful dietary pattern and postmenopausal breast cancer risk.

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