Arginine catabolism metabolites and atrial fibrillation or heart failure risk: 2 case-control studies within the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial
Arginine catabolism metabolites
Atrial fibrillation
Heart failure
Mediterranean diet
Issue Date: 
Oxford University Press
Goni, L. (Leticia); Razquin, C. (Cristina); Toledo, E. (Estefanía); et al. "Arginine catabolism metabolites and atrial fibrillation or heart failure risk: 2 case-control studies within the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 113 (3), 2022, 653 - 662
Background Arginine-derived metabolites are involved in oxidative and inflammatory processes related to endothelial functions and cardiovascular risks. Objectives We prospectively examined the associations of arginine catabolism metabolites with the risks of atrial fibrillation (AF) or heart failure (HF), and evaluated the potential modifications of these associations through Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions in a large, primary-prevention trial. Methods Two nested, matched, case-control studies were designed within the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial. We selected 509 incident cases and 547 matched controls for the AF case-control study and 326 cases and 402 matched controls for the HF case-control study using incidence density sampling. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and arginine catabolism metabolites were measured using LC-tandem MS. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were applied to test the associations between the metabolites and incident AF or HF. Interactions between metabolites and intervention groups (MedDiet groups compared with control group) were analyzed with the likelihood ratio test. Results Inverse association with incident AF was observed for arginine (OR per 1 SD, 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73–0.94), whereas a positive association was found for N1-acetylspermidine (OR for Q4 compared with Q1 1.58; 95% CI: 1.13–2.25). For HF, inverse associations were found for arginine (OR per 1 SD, 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69–0.97) and homoarginine (OR per 1 SD, 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68–0.96), and positive associations were found for the asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethlyarginine (SDMA) ratio (OR per 1 SD, 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02–1.41), N1-acetylspermidine (OR per 1 SD, 1.34; 95% CI: 1.12–1.60), and diacetylspermine (OR per 1 SD, 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02–1.41). In the stratified analysis according to the dietary intervention, the lower HF risk associated with arginine was restricted to participants in the MedDiet groups (P-interaction = 0.044). Conclusions Our results suggest that arginine catabolism metabolites could be involved in AF and HF. Interventions with the MedDiet may contribute to strengthen the inverse association between arginine and the risk of HF. This trial was registered at as ISRCTN35739639.

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