Wnt signaling and Loxl2 promote aggressive osteosarcoma
Keywords: 
Osteosarcoma (OS)
Bone tumor
Modified mouse models (GEMMs)
Issue Date: 
2020
Publisher: 
Springer Nature
ISSN: 
1001-0602
Note: 
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Citation: 
Matsuoka, K. (Kazuhiko); Bakiri, L. (Latifa); Wolff, L. (Lena I.); et al. "Wnt signaling and Loxl2 promote aggressive osteosarcoma". Cell research. 30, 2020, 885 - 901
Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary malignant bone tumor in urgent need of better therapies. Using genetically modified mouse models (GEMMs), we demonstrate that Wnt signaling promotes c-Fos-induced OS formation via the actions of the collagen-modifying enzyme Loxl2. c-Fos/AP-1 directly regulates the expression of the Wnt ligands Wnt7b and Wnt9a in OS cells through promoter binding, and Wnt7b and Wnt9a in turn promote Loxl2 expression in murine and human OS cells through the transcription factors Zeb1 and Zeb2. Concordantly, inhibition of Wnt ligand secretion by inactivating the Wnt-less (Wls) gene in osteoblasts in c-Fos GEMMs either early or in a therapeutic setting reduces Loxl2 expression and progression of OS. Wls-deficient osteosarcomas proliferate less, are less mineralized and are enriched in fibroblastic cells surrounded by collagen fibers. Importantly, Loxl2 inhibition using either the pan-Lox inhibitor BAPN or a specific inducible shRNA reduces OS cell proliferation in vitro and decreases tumor growth and lung colonization in murine and human orthotopic OS transplantation models. Finally, OS development is delayed in c-Fos GEMMs treated with BAPN or with specific Loxl2 blocking antibodies. Congruently, a strong correlation between c-FOS, LOXL2 and WNT7B/WNT9A expression is observed in human OS samples, and c-FOS/LOXL2 coexpression correlates with OS aggressiveness and decreased patient survival. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of Wnt and/or Loxl2 should be considered to potentiate the inadequate current treatments for pediatric, recurrent, and metastatic OS.

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