Cáncer en los primeros 18 meses de vida
Primera infancia
Síntomas amenazantes para la vida
Tumores embrionarios
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Este es un artículo Open Access bajo la licencia CC BY-NC-ND (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Urtasun-Erburu, A. (Andrea); Herrero Cervera, M. J.; Cañete Nieto, A.. "Cáncer en los primeros 18 meses de vida". Anales de pediatria. 93 (6), 2020, 358 - 366
Introduction: Oncological-haematological disease continues to be the first cause of non-traumatic mortality in childhood, as well as a significant cause of morbidity. The patient less than 18-months-old has special clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features that all paediatricians are interested in determining, with the aim of achieving greater survival and a lower morbidity throughout the lives of their patients. Material and methods: A retrospective, descriptive study was carried out using the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic variables in patients less than 18-months-old diagnosed with an oncological-haematological that received chemotherapy in a Paediatric Oncology Unit between January 2007 and August 2019. Results: A total of 72 patients were diagnosed with 76 cancers that required chemotherapy. The most common cancer was leukaemia (21 patients), followed by neuroblastoma (15 patients), and tumours of the central nervous system (12 patients). The presentation of "life-threatening symptoms" was seen in 20.8% of cases, particularly in tumours of neural origin (13/15). Although 18% of patients showed no symptoms on diagnosis, just over half (51%) of the diagnoses took place in the "advanced stages". Particularly in the case of solid tumours in which 23.6% were diagnosed with metastases. A significant percentage of genetic alterations implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of the different cancers were found. Conclusions: Cancer in the first stages of life is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to its phenotypical diversity, its genetic load, and its therapeutic difficulties. Knowledge of its particular features is essential for its early and effective approach.

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