Silane-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles incorporated into polydioxanone/poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) creates a novel toughened nanocomposite with improved material properties and in vivo inflammatory responses
Keywords: 
Silane modification
Tendon enthesis
Hydroxyapatite
Nanocomposites
Interface tissue
Issue Date: 
2023
ISSN: 
2590-0064
Note: 
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync-nd/4.0/).
Citation: 
Heidari, B. S.; Muiños-Lopez, E. (Emma); Chen, P.; et al. "Silane-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles incorporated into polydioxanone/poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) creates a novel toughened nanocomposite with improved material properties and in vivo inflammatory responses". Materials today bio. 22, 2023, 100778
Abstract
The interface tissue between bone and soft tissues, such as tendon and ligament (TL), is highly prone to injury. Although different biomaterials have been developed for TL regeneration, few address the challenges of the TL bone interface. Here, we aim to develop novel hybrid nanocomposites based on poly(p-dioxanone) (PDO), poly (lactide-co-caprolactone) (LCL), and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles suitable for TL-bone interface repair. Nanocomposites, containing 3-10% of both unmodified and chemically modified hydroxyapatite (mHA) with a silane coupling agent. We then explored biocompatibility through in vitro and in vivo studies using a subcutaneous mouse model. Through different characterisation tests, we found that mHA increases tensile properties, creates rougher surfaces, and reduces crystallinity and hydrophilicity. Morphological observations indicate that mHA nanoparticles are attracted by PDO rather than LCL phase, resulting in a higher degradation rate for mHA group. We found that adding the 5% of nanoparticles gives a balance between the properties. In vitro experiments show that osteoblasts' activities are more affected by increasing the nanoparticle content compared with fibroblasts. Animal studies indicate that both HA and mHA nanoparticles (10%) can reduce the expression of pro inflammatory cytokines after six weeks of implantation. In summary, this work highlights the potential of PDO/ LCL/HA nanocomposites as an excellent biomaterial for TL-bone interface tissue engineering applications.

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