Dietary Inflammatory Index and liver status in subjects with different adiposity levels within the PREDIMED trial
Keywords: 
Liver
Diet
Inflammation
NAFLD
Obesity
Issue Date: 
2018
ISSN: 
0261-5614
Citation: 
Cantero-González, I. (Irene); Abete, I. (Itziar); Babio, N. (Nancy); et al. "Dietary Inflammatory Index and liver status in subjects with different adiposity levels within the PREDIMED trial". Clinical nutrition. 37 (2018), 2018, 1736 - 1743
Abstract
Background & aims: To assess the possible association between a validated Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and specific dietary components with suitable non-invasive markers of liver status in overweight and obese subjects within the PREDIMED study. Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing 794 randomized overweight and obese participants (mean ± SD age: 67.0 ± 5.0 y, 55% females) from the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterr anea) trial was conducted. DII is a validated tool evaluating the effect of diet on six inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1b, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-a and C-reactive protein). Furthermore, a validated 137-item food-frequencyquestionnaire was used to obtain the information about the food intake. In addition, anthropometric measurements and several non-invasive markers of liver status were assessed and the Fatty Liver Index (FLI) score was calculated. Results: A higher DII and lower adherence to Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) were associated with a higher degree of liver damage (FLI > 60) in obese as compared to overweight participants. Furthermore, the DII score was positively associated with relevant non-invasive liver markers (ALT, AST, GGT and FLI) and directly affected FLI values. Interestingly, a positive correlation was observed between liver damage (>50th percentile FLI) and nutrients and foods linked to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern. Conclusions: This study reinforced the concept that obesity is associated with liver damage and revealed that the consumption of a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern might contribute to obesity and fatty liver disease features. These data suggest that a well-designed precision diet including putative antiinflammatory components could specifically prevent and ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver manifestations in addition to obesity.

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