Structure, regulation, and physiological functions of NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5)
NADPH oxidase
Insulin resistance
Oxidative stress
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info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ISCIII/PI22- Proyectos de I+D+I en salud (AES 2022)./FIS PI22/01450/[ES]/Caracterización del estrés oxidativo vascular en la fisiopatología de la diabetes: NADPH oxidasa 5 como potencial diana terapéutica.
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García, J.G. (Jorge G.); Ansorena-Artieda, E. (Eduardo); Izal, I. (Iñigo); et al. "Structure, regulation, and physiological functions of NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5)". Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry. 79, 2023, 383 - 395
NOX5 is the last member of the NADPH oxidase (NOXs) family to be identified and presents some specific characteristics differing from the rest of the NOXs. It contains four Ca2+ binding domains at the N-terminus and its activity is regulated by the intracellular concentration of Ca2+. NOX5 generates superoxide (O2•−) using NADPH as a substrate, and it modulates functions related to processes in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved. Those functions appear to be detrimental or beneficial depending on the level of ROS produced. For example, the increase in NOX5 activity is related to the development of various oxidative stress-related pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, and renal diseases. In this context, pancreatic expression of NOX5 can negatively alter insulin action in high-fat diet-fed transgenic mice. This is consistent with the idea that the expression of NOX5 tends to increase in response to a stimulus or a stressful situation, generally causing a worsening of the pathology. On the other hand, it has also been suggested that it might have a positive role in preparing the body for metabolic stress, for example, by inducing a protective adipose tissue adaptation to the excess of nutrients supplied by a high-fat diet. In this line, its endothelial overexpression can delay lipid accumulation and insulin resistance development in obese transgenic mice by inducing the secretion of IL-6 followed by the expression of thermogenic and lipolytic genes. However, as NOX5 gene is not present in rodents and human NOX5 protein has not been crystallized, its function is still poorly characterized and further extensive research is required.

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