Risk of Second Primary Malignancies in Melanoma Survivors: A Population-Based Study
Keywords: 
Materias Investigacion::Ciencias de la Salud::Dermatología
Melanoma
Second primary neoplasms
Risk factors
Prognosis
Survival
Issue Date: 
2023
Publisher: 
MDPI
Note: 
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Citation: 
Antoñanzas, J. (Javier); Morelló-Vicente, A. (Ana); Garnacho-Saucedo, G.M. (Gloria Maria); et al. "Risk of Second Primary Malignancies in Melanoma Survivors: A Population-Based Study". Cancers. 15, 2023, 3056
Abstract
(1) Introduction: The association between melanoma (MM) and the occurrence of second primary neoplasms (SPNs) has been extensively studied, with reported incidence rates ranging from 1.5% to 20%. This study aims to evaluate the occurrence of SPNs in patients with a history of primary MM and to describe the factors that make the risk higher in our population. (2) Material and Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study and calculated the incidence rates and relative risks (RR) for the development of different SPNs in 529 MM survivors from 1 January 2005 to 1 August 2021. Survival and mortality rates were obtained, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the demographic and MM-related factors that influence the overall risk. (3) Results: Among the 529 patients included, 89 were diagnosed with SPNs (29 prior to MM diagnosis, 11 synchronous, and 49 after MM), resulting in 62 skin tumors and 37 solid organ tumors. The estimated probability of developing SPNs after MM diagnosis was 4.1% at 1 year, 11% at 5 years, and 19% at 10 years. Older age, primary MM location on the face or neck, and histologic subtype of lentigo maligna mm were significantly associated with a higher risk of SPNs. (4) Conclusions: In our population, the risk of developing SPNs was higher in patients with primary MM located on the face and neck and with the histological subtype of lentigo maligna-MM. Age also independently influences the risk. Understanding these hazard factors can aid in the development of MM guidelines with specific follow-up recommendations for individuals with the highest risk.

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